Git Cheatsheet - Useful Git Commands



Compare a file between branches:

git diff branch1 branch2 -- <filename> 

# or
git diff <hash1>  <hash2> -- <filename>

# or - see the differences between the current version of a file and a historical one
git diff <hash> -- <filename>

Reset / Undo

Reset a branch to match the state as on a specific remote:

git checkout BRANCH
git reset --hard REMOTE-ID/BRANCH

Undo a commit:

git reset --hard HEAD^

Undo last local commit and move the changes to index:

git reset --soft HEAD^

Remove staged and working directory changes:

git reset --hard 

Change the commit message:

git commit --amend -m "New commit message"

Remote Servers

List Remote Servers:

git remote -v

See more information about a particular remote:

git remote show [REMOTE-ID]
git remote show origin

Add Remote:

git remote add REMOTE-ID REMOTE-URL
# examples
git remote add origin
git remote add backup

Remove Remote:

git remote remove REMOTE-ID
# ex: 
git remote remove upstream

Rename Remote Id:

git remote rename REOMOTE-ID NEW-REMOTE-ID
# ex: 
git remote rename origin old-origin

Change remote URL:

git remote set-ur REMOTE-ID REMOTE-URL
# ex: 
git remote set-url upstream

Multiple Remotes (push to all):

# setup
git remote add REMOTE-ID URL1
git remote set-url --add --push REMOTE-ID URL1
git remote set-url --add --push REMOTE-ID URL2

# push
git push REMOTE-ID

Pull from multiple remotes:

git fetch --all


List all branches:

git branch -v -a

Create a remote branch:

# create a local branch:
git checkout -b your-new-branch

# push the local branch to the (remote) repository
git push --set-upstream origin your-new-branch

Merge a Branch to Master:

git checkout master

git merge src-branch

git push

Merge 2 branches:

git checkout target-branch

git merge src-branch

git push

Keep a branch in sync with master:

# merge master with branch
git checkout master
git pull
git checkout branch
git merge master
git push

# alternative, get a specific commit
git checkout branch
git cherry-pick bugfix

Show last commits on branch:

git show-branch --more=10 --sha1-name <branch-name> 



Compare Branches / Filter by Range:

# The range main..branch-name contains all of the commits that are in the <branch-name> branch, 
# but aren’t in the main branch. 
git log --oneline main..branch-name

# The range contains all of the commits between 5bc24f2 and c77c710 commits
git log <since>..<until>
git log 5bc24f2..c77c710

Visualize Git Log as a graph:

git log --graph
git log --graph --decorate --oneline

Reverse the order of a git log output:

git log --reverse

Filter git log by date:

git log --after="yyyy-mm-dd" --before=="yyyy-mm-dd"
git log --before=="yesterday"
git log --since="2 weeks ago"

Filter by a specific author (or email):

git log --author=Name
git log --author="Alice\|Bob"
# show last 5 commits by author:
git log --oneline --decorate -n 5 --author=Name

Filter by Regex:

# shows only commits with messages that match the given pattern
git log --grep="Bug"
# shows only commits that do not match the given pattern 
git log --grep="Bug" --invert-grep 

Filter by content (if you want to know when "Keyword" was added to any file in the project):

git log -S"Keyword"
git log -G"Reg(ex)Keyword"

List all commits that changed a specific file:

git log --follow -- <file-name>



# Push a new stash on the stack
git stash
# or
git stash push
# add a message 
git stash push -m|--message <message>
# to stash a single file:
git stash push <path>

# List the stash entries that you currently have:
git stash list

# Apply the top stash
git stash pop

# Apply a specific stash, and REMOVE it from the stash
git stash pop stash@{2}
# or (does not remove it)
git stash apply stash@{2}

# clean stash - remove all the stash entries
git stash clear
# remove a specific stash from the stack
git stash drop stash@{2}


Create patch:

# git format-patch <branch> <options>
git format-patch master --stdout > patch_file.patch 

Apply patch:

#shows what's modified
git apply --stat patch_file.patch  

#shows possible conflicts 
git apply --check patch_file.patch 

#apply patch 
git apply patch_file.patch


Fetch + Rebase:

git checkout master # OR branch-name 
git fetch 
git log ..origin/master #see the new commits 
git rebase origin/master

Squash Merge:

git merge --squash branch_name 
git commit -m "comment" 
git push 

Add a backup remote:

# setup, once
git remote add backup {{gitlab_url}}

git remote set-url --add --push backup {{gitlab_url}}

git remote set-url --add --push backup {{github_url}}

# push to backup (both remotes are updated)
git push backup


Show files modified in commit:

git show --name-only <commit-id> 

Archive git project (excludes files in .gitignore)

git archive --format=zip HEAD -o

Config & Settings

Set username and email:

git config --global "username"
git config --global ""


Disable SSL Verify


# OR
# http.sslVerify=false
git -c http.sslVerify=false push

Credentials Helper

Avoid entering your username and password every time you push or pull from the Git repo.

Store your credentials for an hour in the memory:

# Timeout in seconds
git config --global credential.helper 'cache --timeout=3600'

!!! DON'T DO THIS - it's not secure because it stores your username and password in a plain text file at ~/.git-credentials